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Though broilers often appear to be evenly distributed throughout a house, more times than not our eyes are deceiving us and we have uneven bird distribution.
Figures 1 and 2 are of the tunnel fan and tunnel inlet ends of a 50’ X 600’ broiler house with 20-day-old birds.
Figure 1. Tunnel fan end
Figure 2. Tunnel inlet end
At first glance bird density appears fairly uniform but when examined closely, it becomes apparent that there are more birds near the tunnel doors (far right of Figure 2) than in any other area of the house and we have uneven bird distribution.
The question are, of course, is this “slight” difference in bird density significant? Will it create problems in the future?
This particular house was equipped with two ultrasonic water meters, one for the tunnel inlet end, and one for the tunnel fan end (Figures 3 and 4).
Water meters can be a very useful tool in helping to determine if the birds are evenly spread between the two ends of a house because broiler water usage is a very good indicator of bird density.
In this particular case when the birds were 20 days old, the water meters were indicating that the birds on tunnel inlet end were drinking roughly 20% more water than those on the tunnel fan end (0.61 Vs. 0.46 gals/min).
The twenty percent difference in water usage indicated that there were very likely twenty percent more birds on the tunnel inlet end than the tunnel fan end of the house.
Graphic 1. Daily Water Consumption
Though the difference in water usage between the two ends of the house tended to decrease slightly toward the end of the flock this was not likely due to the movement of birds between the two ends of the house.
The fact is that since the density was significantly lower on the tunnel fan end the birds had easier access to feed and water than those on the higher density tunnel inlet end which resulted in higher weight gains.
Graphic 2. Average Bird Weights (Section 1 = Pad end, Section 4 = Tunnel fan end)
Even though the air temperatures during the August/September flock were generally lower on the tunnel inlet end of the house, the birds on the tunnel inlet end weighed almost 3/4 of a pound less than those on the warmer tunnel fan end.
What made the situation more costly to the grower was there roughly 20% more of the lighter birds on the tunnel inlet end of the house than there were heavier birds on the tunnel fan end of the house.
To help ensure that bird density is as uniform as possible from one end of a house to another and to avoid uneven bird distribution, consider taking the following steps: