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Current prevalent methods of diagnosis worldwide rely on observations from farmers, farmworkers, and veterinarians.
Detection and prediction of emerging diseases in poultry are becoming more important every day. Due to the costs of an outbreak, the potential zoonotic implications of many poultry pathogens, and the negative impacts on the markets of any news about avian diseases, rapid and accurate detection and diagnosis are paramount.
The sooner a poultry disease can be detected, the diagnosis completed, and the case correctly classified.
Reasonable and timely measurements could help minimize costs and avoid spreading to other birds and flocks.
In the same way, chances for impacting the final poultry products and consumers could be reduced.
Additionally, they may have significant negative consequences in the short and long-term supply-chain, especially in egg and chick production, and in the marketing of all poultry products.
Frequently necropsies are necessary to collect blood and tissue samples, and sometimes water, feed, and litter are also obtained to be later analyzed in laboratories.
The laboratory analyses include:
Culture techniques for bacteria and sometimes viruses
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
Isothermal amplification techniques
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for virus or serum antibodies
These technologies include:
Noninvasive approaches for